Siddha Medicine


It was my intention to write an introduction only on the completion of the entire work; but it occurred to me that, in a peculiarly technical and unique work like this, all the characteristic features show and the methods pursued in giving the meanings, furnishing explanatory notes here and there in the derivative origins and the like have all necessarily to be elucidated even at the outset without waiting for the whole work to be completed, so as to save all the possible difficulties of the users of this work; and it is this uncommon aspect of this work that has impelled me to offer this introduction even along with this first volume.

The original Home allotted to mankind by the Creator was in the temperate and fertile region of the East and pointedly in India. It is from here that the human race began its culture and career of its advance from the potent nucleus of science and art with which India was animated. India may therefore be safely stated as the first country from which human culture and civilisation originated and spread for and wide.

As every tyro in Indian History knows that, prior to the Aryan migration, the dravidians were the first inhabitants of India of whom the Tamilians were the most prominent. The early history of the Tamil country and the earliest traditions of the Tamilians are still shrouded in obscurity. As a rule, whoever attempts to trace all the doings or actions of man in remote times and to mark the various steps of their progress in any activity gets mortified to find that the sources of their authentic history happen to be extremely limited.

Even if we had to push our investigation in the period preceding the historic era, we have been led to enter the region of conjecture and surmise. Into such hazardous task it is not my scope to venture or endeavour to conduct my readers. My investigations and researches will therefore be confined only to what is intimately connected with the scope of this work.

Many facts have been transmitted to us, which, when they are examined with proper care, clearly demonstrate that the Tamilians were not only the earliest civilized b but those who made more considerable progress in civilization than any other early people. I shall endeavor to mention these placing them in such a point of view that will both serve to throw light upon their arts, institutions, manners and customs and to satisfactorily account for the eagerness of the Aryans and other nations to assimilate the product of all their ingenious and remarkable activities, From the most ancient available accounts of the Dravidians in India, We learn that the distinction of social ranks according to profession - not to speak of castes and creeds, was thoroughly in vogue during those times. This is one of the undoubted proofs of a well ordered society considerably advanced in its progress. Prior to the records of authentic history and even perhaps prior to it in most remote eras to which their tradition aimed to reach, this separation of professions had not only existed amongst the institution of headman of the professions known as village head man which must be considered as the fundamental article in the system of their polity.

It is only after the Aryan immigration that they divided themselves into four castes. This method of separation is only an established scheme, but to say that it has proceeded from Divinity and as such to confound it would be deemed an act of daring impiety, is glaringly false as it does not appeal to one's faculty of reasoning.

The customs and conditions that exist amongst their descendants at the present day closely resemble in every way those that characterized them even from the earliest period when they were know as having flourished. The school of Siddhars and their works in various branches of knowledge are clear proof of their own high perfection in science.

As classified by Mr. Max Muller, the largest number of languages--not to speak of the ancient Chinese which belongs to a Radical stage--belong perhaps to the Terminational or Agglutinative stage and among them are included the Dravidian languages of India and the other languages such as Australian, Japanese, Turkish, Magyar, and Finnish as well. The Infectional or Amalgamating stage is best represented by the Semitic and the Aryan Languages.

The language of India are divided into two great classes - the Northern with sanskrit as the prepondering element and the Southern with the Dravidian languages as independent bases. The five popular dialects of Southern India are as every one knows- the Dravida or the Tamil proper, the Telings, the Karnataka, the Mahratta and the Gurjara. The last two are included in this enumeration as they possess certain features of resemblance to the languages of the South, which were probably derived from the same or similar source or sources.


The term Dravidian is to signify the language of Southern India and they are-Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, Kanarese, Tulu, Gond and the Kru(Khond).Strictly speaking, the term 'Dravida’ denotes the Tamil country alone(including Malayalam).


Agastya is an eminent personage who is venerated deeply in the South as the first preceptor of Tamil Science and literature of the primitive Dravidians. It is believed that he had himself received his knowledge and inspiration from God Subrahmanya, the fountain-head of all knowledge in Tamil. It is also said that, at the command of God Siva, Agastya proceeded to the South as far as Cape Comorin and took up his abode at the Podigai hills. Although he became the author of the tamil language and compiled the first tamil grammer(Agattiyam).We are not to suppose that he was the author of the Tamil alphabet.

Just as Vyasa has been regarded in North India as a great authority in Sanskrit, Agastya has an equally distinguished place in the South. He is in fact called the "Tamil muni or the Tamilian Sage." He wielded very high influence which he acquired at the court of kula sekhara(according to the tradition of the first pandian King);and numerous are the elementary treatise which he composed for the enlightenment of his royal disciple; and the one with the grammatical principles of language systematically arranged has naturally acquired high renown. He is mythologically represented in India as the Canopus, the brightest star in the extreme southern sky and is worshipped near Cape Comorin as Agattisvara. By the majority of the orthodox Hindus, he is even now believed to be still alive though invisible to ordinary eyes, somewhere on the fine conical mountains commonly called the "Agastya's hills" from which the sacred river of Tamraparni takes its rise.

The territorial limits

The great plain of the Karnatic is at present the seat of the Tamil race, In some of the Tamil works it is said that the Tamil country south of Cape Comorin was originally a Continent which is believed to have been submerged in the Indian ocean. Even the seats of the first two great Tamil academics that existed at different periods; prior to the formation of the Madura Sangam, are believed alike to have been submerged in the sea; and thus the most precious gems of Tamil Literature have been irrecoverably lost.

Tamil Literature - its history

The earliest literature so far as it is known, is traced by Dr. Caldwell to the 8th century A.D. The Madura Sangam then known as the last academy, and founded mostly for the cultivation of the Tamil language exercised as great an authority over the Tamil literature as the Academy of Paris had done in its palmy days for France; but it came to a sudden end and several are the stories told and different are the explanations offered for the same and they are all far from being satisfactory. What ever it be, the fact remains that it had to encounter severe opposition from the races that came after, especially from the Muhammadans who were responsible for the loss of the valuable gems of the Tamil literature. Tamil had in fact suffered several changes due to the influence of the Aryans, the Jains, and the Buddhists with the result that the Tamil section subsequently directed its attention more to Sanskrit and came at all events, to neglect the cultivation of their own literature.

Thus the old system was subverted; but a new impulse was given to the study of Tamil by the literar activities of the Jaina sect through which Tamil became substantially enriched. It borrowed from Sanskrit a few letters more for convenience rather than out of necessity. Though it is not within the scope of this work or its purpose to enter into the details of comparative philology, it is considered essential to deal with certain aspects that have e contributed in a way towards the compilation of this work. Almost all the languages of India have been considerably enriched by Sanskrit; and sanskrit has like-wise borrowed several words from Tamil especially from works on Medicine, Philosophy, Alchemy, etc ., which were composed mainly inverses, as for instance dealt with in this work are purely Tamil works but borrowed and assimilated in Sanskrit as ‘Ida’, ‘Pingala’' and 'Sushumna'; as also the word Shadadharam in Sanskrit and Sushupti. Dr. Caldwell in his Dravidian Comparative Grammer, instances 31 words taken into Sanskrit from the dravidian tongues. He is also of opinion that Sanskrit derived its cerebral consonants from the Dravida. It is evident that the early writings on Tamil Medicine are quite independent of Sanskrit even as its language and literature are.

Kural and Tolkappiyam are the oldest productions of the existing Tamil literature; and along with this may be reckoned the 18 works written by the Jainas as also the several compositions(brief epigrammatic moral verses) of Avvaiyar or the Matron.

Various are the views held by different scholars who closely studied the Tamil language without any bias;

1. Prof. Max Miller: 'Tamil' is the most highly cultivated language and possesses the richest stores of indigenous literature.

2. Rev. Percival: No language combines greater force with equal brevity than Tamil and it may be asserted that no human speech is more close and philosophic in its expression as an exponent of the mind than the same.

3. Dr. Caldwell: The Tamil literature is the only vernacular literature in India which has not been content with imitating Sanskrit, but has honourably attempted to emulate and outshine it. In one of the departments at least-that of emulate and outshine it. In one of the departments at least-that of ethical epigram-Sanskrit has been out-done by Tamil.

Now, coming to Medicine, it is my intention to say a few works about it in general and also in regard to the several indigenous systems now in vogue in our country before I enter into the details of the Tamil Siddha Medicine which is the purpose of the present compilation and the main subject for discussion.


Medicine, as every one knows is not merely a science but an art as well. It consists not merely of compounding mixture, preparing decoctions, pills, plasters and drugs of all kinds; but it also deals with the different processes of life. The practice of medicine spoken of here deals not merely with the external body of man but also with the inner man or the soul. The art of Medicine is based on Truth and as such, It is a divine art not to be prostituted for base purpose or for money. The employment of strong will, benevolence, charity, patience etc., is the principle corner-stone in the practice of medicine. It is therefore a holy science and the practice of medicine and the curing of diseases are a sacred mission and as such cannot be understood by those who are undeveloped in their minds or who have made no study of the deeper causes and the aims of the life. There are countless remedies in nature which are Magnalia die i.e., the mysteries of curing and healing hidden from eyes, but open to the spiritual perception of the Wise. A medicine that will do good at one tine will be useless at another according to the prevailing influence of planets and their forces; and therefore a system of medicine without the true knowledge and understanding of natural laws, is likely to do more harm than good. Medical science may be mastered by learning, but medical wisdom can be gained only by a knowledge of Nature or of the Soul.

Medical science in India as practiced by our ancients, has been purely associated with Religion and Philosophy; and as such is evidently based on truth. Modern science knows next to nothing about the cause of action of medicines in the system; and so the drugs administered by modern practitioners cannot effect any radical cure of diseases; but will serve only to drive away the effects of diseases temporarily. The refined natural remedies have almost entirely disappeared from the pharmacopoeia. Many learned doctors of to-day are not aware of the simple fact that organs such as, the heart, lungs, brain, liver and stomach are only the material and the bodily representatives of invisible energies or activities that pervade and circulate the whole cosmic system, just in the same way as the Sun, Moon, Venus, Mars, etc., are the visible representatives of the cosmos.

A system of medicine without understanding and without a true knowledge of natural laws, will therefore remain for ever a system of more opinions, superstitions and of passive observation and inactivity; and this is the fact of the indigenous systems of Medicine in India at the present day. Some may perhaps criticise this on the ground that these views are similar to those held by the Medical school of Dogmatics in the time of Hippocrates, that such knowledge is quite unnecessary because it is unattainable and impracticable and that the simple human experience should be the only guide to practice. But the fact remains that, unless these systems are thoroughly over chronic ailment.


Ayurveda is reckoned as a portion of the fourth Veda or the Adharvana and has been considered the oldest work on Hindu medicine. Although this is claimed by the Aryans as theirs, neither its author nor the age in which if was written is known; and only fragments of it have come down to us embodied in certain commentaries of subsequent writers. The modern Hindus ascribe its authorship to their gods, some to Brahma and others to Siva; but in their philosophical writings they are all attributed only to siva who in this aspect is known at Vaidisvara(God of Medicine).

It is not clear how the human race got access to it as many and various are the legends current about it. It is said that, in Kaliyuga, the world became reprobate and the corruption of the human race was such as necessitate a great curtailment of life and to leave the people embittered by numerous ailments. This legend is supposed to indicate the epoch of Ayurveda as intermediate between the Vedic and the Brahminical times-which is about the 9th or the 10th century B.C.

European nations are much indebted to the Arabs for the preservation and transmission of the works of the ancient Greeks which had fallen into their hands during the destruction of the famous library at Alexandria and for having provided a connecting link with classical antiquity during an age when science, art and literature in Europe lay buried under the colossal ignorance of barbarism.

Tamil Siddha system of Medicine

The world 'siddha' comes from the word 'siddhi' which means 'an object to be attained' or 'perfection' or 'heavenly'. Siddhi generally refers to Ashtama siddhi i.e., The eight great supernatural powers which are enumerated as Anima etc., Those who attained or achieved the above said powers are known as Siddhars.

Siddhis are also construed as powers which are attained by birth, (according to previous Karma), by chemical means or power of words or by mortification or through concentration. As for instance-Kapila, the father of the great Sankhya philosophy is a born Siddha. Concentration on the elements beginning with the Gross and ending with the Superfine enables one to get mastery over the elements; and this was practiced by a sect of Buddhists who concentrated on a lump of clay with a view to see its fine ethereal particles.

A brief account of the Siddhars is given on page 10 of this volume under the foot-note. In Dawson's classical dictionary of Hindu Mythology, they are described as belonging to a class of semi-divine beings of great purity and holiness, dwelling in the regions of the sky or between the earth and the sky, but they are generally mistaken for Ghosts. In Ayurveda, such classes of persons were called Rasayanas on account of their proficiency in the knowledge of Alchemy and Rejuvenation.

As Nandi is apparently the head of the members in the above list, the school should only be Nandivargam and cannot be Moolavargam.

The Siddhars were a class of popular writers in Tamil in all its branches of knowledge; and many of their works were written in what is called high Tamil. The Kavi or poetry in which the medical and other scientific tracts have been composed is much admired by those who have made it their special study. The Siddhars were further the greatest scientists in ancient times. They were man of highly cultured intellec tual and spiritual faculties combined with supernatural powers. Their works in Tamil are supposed to be more valuable than many that have been written in Sanskrit. They are sad to be works less shackled by the mythological doctrines of the original Ayurveda. They contain a large number of valuable formulae and exhibit further minute enumarations of morbid symptoms. They evince a moral conviction of the intervention of the evil spirits and offer many curious rules for averting their evil influences and effects.

This Siddhars are universally supposed to have lived at a very early period; and we cannot ascertain their exact period of existence as their school also ceased to function long long ago. Agastya Siddha who is the chief of the Siddhars’ school is said to have been a celebrated rated philosopher and physician who laboured amongst the Tamils in Southern India. Some of his works are still standard books of Medicine are Surgery in daily use among the Tamil medical practitioners. It is very doubtful whether this Agastya is identical with the great Rishi in Northern India. He is said to have written by his followers and fathered on him. It is quick unnecessary for our purpose here to append to list of books of the Tamil Siddha system, as has been done in the causes of the other two systems, for the simple reason that they are so numerous as likely t extend to several pages. The readers may refer to the bibliographical list which will be furnished at the end of this work which would be fairly exhaustive.

Leaving the early pre-Aryan ages and coming to the Dravidian times, we find many others, probably the followers of the said Siddha school; and they are also credited with a knowledge of Medicine, Alchemy etc, and with having beneficially employed themselves in imparting through their works, a knowledge of the healing art in curing all the diseases of mankind. Their works bear a close resemblance to the Siddha system of medicine and as such command a large circulation and wide spread study amongst the Tamilians. They are all apparently the supposed compositions of the Siddha school; but are thoroughly modern and colloquial with grammatical forms and structure not at all familiar to the ancients. Still, they have spread all over Southern India so widely that there is not a village or a household which is not aware of this system of Medicine. Every women knew best how to treat herself and her children; and was fully aware of or otherwise acquainted with the uses of’ Domestic Medicines' suited to indigenous taste and knowledge; and this acquaintance with domestic treatment has been purely hereditary.

Even physician in those days were doctors of long descent; and from their early youth they had been intended for the profession and were taught everything that was considered necessary for and preparatory to it. This science had later become so much degraded that most of them turned mere empirics; and there was not one physician amongst them more learned than the other. This is in short the history of the three systems of Medicine, indigenous to our country.

Macrocosm vs. Microcosm

Man is said to be the Microcosm, and the world the Macrocosm; because what exists in the world exists in Man; or in other words there is nothing in Macricism of Nature that is not contained in Man. So man must be looked upon as an integral part of universal Nature and not as anything separate or different from the latter. Further, the forces in the Microcosm or man are identical with the forces of the Macrocosm or the world; or to put it more plainly-the natural forces acting in and through the various organs of the human body are intimately related to the similar or corresponding forces acting in and through the organisms of the world.

In the organisms of man, these forces may act in an abnormal manner and cause diseases thereby. Similarly, in the great organisms of the Cosmos, they may act abnormally likewise and bring about diseases on earth and its atmospheric conditions such as earthquake, storms, lightings, rain-fails resulting in the elements constituting the blood of a man corresponds to the quality of the invisible influences rediating from Mars. If the scull-essentials that characterise the influences of Venus do not exist, the natural instincts that cause men and animals to propagate their species would cause to operate; because all beings in the Universe are sympathetically connected with the only one universal principle of life from Venus resulting in love between two persons of the opposite sex.

The following are the instances in which every sign of the Zodiac has an aspect towards some particular part of the human body:

1. Aries relates to the neck Libra relates to the kidneys

2. Taurus the neck and shoulders Scorpio genitals

3. Gemini arms and hands Sagittarius lips

4. Cancer chest and adjacent parts Capricorn Knees

5. Leo the heart and stomach Aquarius legs

6. Virgo the intestine, Pisces the base of  feet, the stomach umbilicus

Like the signs of the Zodiac each of the planets has jurisdiction over some parts of the body. A few instances shown below will be enough to exemplify the manner and the way in which the Seven Planets exercise special power over some part of the body to cause disease or diseases according t their influences on the three humours in the system:

1. Satum: Presides over bones, teeth, cartilage’s, ear, spleen, bladder and brain and gives rise to Quatrain fever, leprosy, tabbies, paralysis, dropsy, cancer, cough, asthma, phthisis of the right ear, hernia, etc.

2. Jupiter: has jurisdiction over blood, liver, pulmonary veins, diaphragm, muscles of the trunk and sense of touch and smell.

3. Mars: has power over bile, gall-bladder, left ear, pudenda and the kidneys; and brings about fever, jaundice, convulsions, hemorrhage, carbuncle, erysipelas, ulcers etc.

4. Venus: presides over the pituitous blood an semen, throat, breasts, abdomen, uterus genetalia, taste, smell, and pleasurable sensations; and causes gonorrhea, barrenness abscesses or even death from sexual or poison.

5. Mercury: has jurisdiction over the animal, spirit, over legs, feet, hands, fingers, tongue, nerves and ligaments and produces relapsing fevers mania, phrenitis, epilepsy, convulsion, profuse expectoration etc, or even death by poison, witchcraft and so on.

Eastern Physiology

Nature is the material cause not merely of the outer Universe but also of out body with all its grosser and subtler divisions and components, its instruments of knowledge and action and the proclivities and tendencies, in which the soul dwells even, as in a cottage.

The question that naturally arises is, what constitutes the human body according to the theory of Siddhantists and the following is the answer to it:

We present our readers a table of 96 Tatwas postulated by the Siddhantists' school; and a simpler for, of the table is herein given; and this requires to be carefully studied. A careful and precise definition of these Tatwas has to follow: but this we do not attempt here for want of space. The human body is composed ninety-six Tatwas or constituent principles in Nature including elements, bodily and mental organs, faculties, matter etc,; and they are as shown below:

1. The five elements

2. The five object of senses

3. The five organs of action

4. The five organs of perception

5. The four intellectual faculties

6. The ten nerves

7. The five state of the soul

8. The three principle of moral evil

9. The three cosmic qualities

10. The three humours(wind, bile, phlegm)

11. The three regions (sun, moon, and fire)

12. The eight predominent passions

13. The six station of the soul

14. The seven constituent elements of body

15. The ten vital airs

16. The five cause of sheaths of the soul

17. The nine doors or vents of the body

In Tamil, small tracts called Kattalai exists: and they define and describe these Tatwas which are variously enumerated as 19 or 25 or36 or 96. Rev. Hoisington has translated one of these tracts, as also Rev. Foulkes of Salem, but both these books are unfortunately out of print. Both Siddhantins and Vedantins(idealists) accept the number 36 or 96; but they differ in several particulars. Thirty-six when still more analysed given rise to Ninenty-six. The enumeration of these Tatwas beings from the lowest and the grossest, which is the earth.

Note: Nos. 1 to 5 making up a total of twenty-four are called the powers of the soul; whereas Nos. 6 to 17 making up a total of 72 which together with the above said 24(in 1 to 5) constitute 96 Tatwas.

The Siddhars school fully recognises these ninety-six Tatwas and further add that the human body is composed of 72,000 blood-vessels, 13,000 nerves, 10 main arteries, 10 vital airs(Prana), all together in the form of a net-work; and it is, owing to the derangement of the three humours becomes liable to 4448 diseases. This is well explained in the following verses from lswara’s Meignana Nadi:

of this ten vital airs, five play an important role in the physiological unetions necessary for the preservation of the physical body and they are:

1. Chief Prana - Regulates the respiratory system.

2. Apana - helps excretions from the lower organs, evacuation &


3. Vyana - Principle of circulation of energy throughout the entire nervous system.

4. Udana - regulates the function of higher organs of the brain.

5. Samana - the principle of digestion on assimilation.

Tatwa is the primordial and eternally existing basic essence.

The knowledge of Siddhars in this respect cannot be taken as abstruse speculations; and in their arguments, we can see evinced such depths of though, acumen and discernment as would lead one to think that their systems of logic or reasoning regarding the physiological principles are remarkably striking and interesting.

Now coming to the psychological aspect of the human body, we find that the five great elements of modern thinkers play a great part in the composition of the human body. According to Hindu conception, two more elements mix., Mind and Buddhi should also be taken into consideration. Each elements playing its own part goes to b ring about the harmonius working of the human and other animals bodies. There are, nine gates(ten in women) described for the play of forces of the five senses in the human body in which lives the soul commonly known as Jivatma a miniature representation of Paramatma, the universal soul in contra- distinction to the former. The human body is therefore considered to be a temple of God.

There are in our body several supports to the soul for the existence and continuation of life; and these supports are closely connected by Prana. Siddhars attach much more importance to this Prana which is the Life principle of the Universe absorbed and specialised b y every human being. This Prana stimulates the two very active centres viz. the brain and the heart. The positive matter flows along the vertebral column and is gathered up in the Medulla oblongata and this flow we call Sushumna, and it stimulates the spinal column with all its ramifications; Pingala is the channel for the current which work in the right half of the body through the right sympathic system and Idakala is the channel for the currents working in the left half of the body or the left sympathetic. These channels of life-forces are called in Tamil Nadis. The forces of Prana which diverge from either way from these Nadis are only the ramifications and the nervous system is but the plexuses or webs(physical) for the play of the force of Prana through the physical body. As the Prana courses itself through, the lungs inspire, and as it recedes the process of exhalation sets in.

The three Nadies Ida, Pingala and Sushumna meet in six different places known as Shadadharam the six nerve plexses. Each of these plexuses is round like a wheel and hence they are called Chakras or Padmams. Every plexus pulsates with the vibrations of the great stream current of Prana which Sushumna absorbs the Great Life principle. These major Chakras in their turn cause the smaller ones or the minor nerve-centres to function. The main seat of the pranic force is the heart; and this is made to function by the force of the Great Energy. The Great Energy playing on the (sushumuna) gives the motive power which enables the respective parts of the human organism to function.

Sushumna is one of the passages of the nerve-center at the top of the vertebral column running down through the spinal cord. Within this Sushumna is a hollow called Chitra and in this hollow the Divine spirit dwells. This spirit is in all probability the seat of vitality and of life. The other two Nadies are called Idakala and Pingala of which ldakala coiling round Sushumna enters the right nostril, and the other Pingala in like manner enters the left nostril.

The Five elements

According to Hindu science, there are five elements in Nature. They are the original bases of all the corporeal things which when die out or destroyed resolve themselves again into elements. This is in fact just what takes place in the case of dead bodies of animals and thing. All earthly beings live, move, grow and die to be resolved into the five elements again after death. It has already been pointed out that there is a very close and intimate connection between the external world and the internal man. The human body is composed of five elements viz., earth, water, heat, air and ether and is a small world in itself; and so the five elements lie at the root of the external world and the internal man. They are also found in all bodies by the processes of transmutation and union and the following are instances of such transformed conditions:

Earth into bone, flesh, nerves, skin and hair.
Water bile, blood, semen, secretion and sweat.
Fire hunger, thirst, sleep; beauty and indolence.
Vayu contraction, expansion and motion.
Akasa interspaces of the stomach, heart, neck and the land.
In their natural existence, they are crude more or less mixed up and apt to be changed the one into the other. They are the fundamental principles of creation, preservation and destruction in the Universe. They are so very closely connected with one another that they borrow their qualities one from the other and thus each of them has two specific properties of which one is retained as original belonging to itself and the other is that which comes to it from the others. Therefore, as fire is to air, so is air to water and water to earth; and again, as the earth is to the water, so is water to air, and air is to fire; and this is the root and foundation of all bodies and their wonderful functioning.

Every element will be found mixed up thus with the other five elements. One element cannot be viewed dissociated from the other elements. Where there is one element there are other elements also present. This is briefly explained as follows:- Elements are in themselves divided into two halves or parts viz., Physical and Subtle and this subtle is again divided into two equal parts of which one is retained as such and the other part is sub-divided into four equal parts. The process of combination of each of these parts with the retained half in the others is known as five-fold combination, as for instance:-

1 / 2 of Akasa is integrated with the other sub-division of the four elements viz., air, fire, water and earth i.e., 1 / 2 of Akasa + 1 / 8 of the other elements constitute - physical ether and likewise 1 / 2 of air - 1 / 8 of the other four elements constitute physical fire and so on. In this way we get the five elements in mutual combination but with the designation of that which is predominant in each.

This is what is called the theory of Panchikaranam. In fact Panchikaranam is the operation of the five elements in the human body by the varied union of which, according to tatwa system, different operations or acts, of mental faculties or corporeal powers, are considered to be effected. He who knows the principle underlying Panchikaranam will thoroughly understand the qualities of the elements separately and in combination and thus bring to pass wonderful and astonishing results or miracles in the world even as Siddhars do. A Sadhu before us suddenly disappears; and the disappearance, is nothing but etherserving as a barrier between the Sadhu and ourselves brought about by utilising powers in nature and manipulating them to bring about materialisation of things, and redirection of rays of vibration from objects. Herein lies also the secret of the foretelling of things to come, the expelling of evil and the gaining of desired ends; and the knowledge of this secret power is what is called in psychic parlance, which is the West is termed ‘the Perfection of the Cabala’. It is the root cause and foundation for the cosmo-genesis. In Cosmogony, it is the reduction into union and order of chaos or discordant principles of matter, brought about by harmoniously blending together of the five elementary substances. He who knows how to reduce the elements of one order into another, impure into pure, compound into single and vice versa will verily understand the nature, virtue and power of all and every one of the elements.

Siddhars hold also that if one is aware of the secret doctrine of the five elements, one metal may be changed into another on the ground that all substances spring or emanate from some Primordial matter; and so there can be no classification as elements and compounds. More of this will be found fully dealt with under Alchemy infra.

The elements above referred to are the subtle elements and not the gross ones. The doctrine of the elements as described by Siddhars first originated in India; and the Greek philosophers got their ideas about the elements from only the Orients. It is clearly laid down in ancient treatises that the earth is derived from water; water from fire, fire from air, and air from ether (sky)-vide Upanished; and so these elements supposed to be originals are not in themselves really elements; but they are twice compounded and each changeable into others. So the Siddhars assert that none of the so called elements which enter into the composition of all living bodies is by itself pure; and that the only purest and original one in this world is the Soul and the rest are all only compounds.

The only conclusion therefore is that one of these five elements is the primordial ether out of which the other elements have their origin. The ancients of Europe had also similar belief as evinced from the saying, that "Chaos of auntients" was a confused mixture of elements from which the Creator produced the Universe and that the Cosmos arose from chaos and gave birth to different natural bodies. Van Halmont likewise believed that the vapour of water was confused mass of elements from which all material substances could be procured.

The three physical elements of the external world, viz., air (wind), heat (fire) and water are selected in Medical Science as they form the three fundamental principles on which the constitution of human beings has been based. A detailed account of these three elements known as humours as they enter into the body is given separately under ‘Humoural Pathology’.

Humoural Pathology

Humoural Pathology explains that all diseases are caused by the mixture of the three cardinal humours viz., Wind, Bile and Phlegm, and that the relative proportion of these humours are responsible for a person’s physical and mental qualities and dispositions. The three humours under references are called in Tamil ‘Muppini’ and in Ayurveda ‘Tridosha’. They are the three fundamental principles and essential factors in the composition and constitution of the human body. These three humours viz., Wind, Bile and Phlegm represent respectively the air, the fire and the water of the five elements which form the connecting link between Microcosm or man and Macrocosm or world.

The external air corresponds to the internal Vayu; the external Heat corresponds to the internal Pitta; and the external water corresponds to the internal Phlegm (Kapha). Man is thus linked with the external world; and any change in the elementary condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism; and it is upon this interchange of influences that the Tridosha theory and the doctrine of Humoural Pathology are based.

According to the Siddhars’ Science, the three humours in their normal order occupy respectively the lower, middle and upper parts of the body and maintain their integrity-the Vayu in the regions of the pelvis and the rectum; the Pittam in the region of the stomach and the internal viscera and the Phlegm in the region of the breath, throat and head. It is also said that the characteristics of the three humours in the constitution of man is either hereditary or atavic. In scientific parlance, Vayu comprehends all the phenomena which come under the functions of the central and the sympathetic nervous system; Pitta, the functions of thermogenesis or heat-production, metabolism within its limits, the process of digestion, colouration of blood, excretion and secretion etc., and Kapha, the regulation of the heat and the formation of the various preservative glands. Thus we see that the Indian medical science is based on morbific diathesis; and that human dispositions are inseparable from the three humours. In fact, there is no substance in the universe which does not own its formation to humours in large or small degree.

The Siddhars’ Materia Medica also is based on Humoural Pathology. It asserts that all substances of the animal, the vegetable and the mineral kingdoms contain one or more of these three humours in their composition; and that therefore diet should play an important role in the maintenance of these humours in men and women in preventing diseases or aliments; and that the patient should seek the advice of a physician in the matter of diet in the course of treatment.

The three humours maintain the upkeep of the human body through their combined functioning. When deranged, they bring about diseases peculiar to their influence; when in equilibrium freedom from disease; and when one or the other of the humours combine in such a way as to get deranged by aggravation dimunution etc., disease or death may be the result. The humours by themselves are not the producers of diseases in their functioning; but they give rise to diseases if they are vitiated by other factors; and hence we see that humours and diseases are altogether different and have no connection in their normal condition. Humours may be said to be the component parts of the human organism, and diseases the outcome of external factors that put those organisms out of order.

According to the fundamental principles of Humoural Pathology, no disease can be local and absolutely unconnected with the other parts of the organism. If the physician tries to cure a disease, he should necessarily concentrate his attention upon the why and wherefore of the vitiated humours resulting in that disease. The principal rules to be followed in cases of irregularity of the three humours is either to augment the loss or deficiency, to pacify the aggravation or to reduce the increment of Doshas, Vata, Pitta and Khapa are in the proportions of 1 : 1 / 2: 1 / 4 : 4 : 2 : 1 respectively. The normal degree or force of pulse also is to be in the same order. Any change in these proportions is sure to bring about disease or death; but the maintenance of their normal proportion gives vitality to the organisms and assures the preservation of health and longevity of life.

It has already been stated that these three humours form these three fundamental principles in the composition and constitution of Man; and so the physiological doctrine on which they are based is also exactly the same as that of Pathology.

Let us now examine part played by each of these humours in the system:-

Vayu (wind) forms the vital force of the human body and is present everywhere in the system. It is believed to be self-begotten in its origin and identical with Divine Energy i.e., God. It is unconditioned, absolute and all prevading in its nature; and forms the lifeforce of all animated beings. Although it is invisible, its presence is manifest everywhere. It always takes a transverse course and is known by its two attributes namely, sound and touch. It is the root cause of all disease and the king of all sorts of aliments. It is very prompt in its action and it pass through the whole system in a rapid current.

Pitta (Heat) is the human organism is nothing but heat as it possesses all the characteristics of the external fire, such as burning, boiling, heating, etc. It produces the internal heat necessary to maintain the integrity of the human body; and any increase or decrease in this, produces a simultaneous action in the organism. The chief function of bile lies in metamorphosing the chyle to a proto-plasmic substance like the sperm in men and ovum in women. It corresponds to metabolism or cell sub-division. Heat may be said to include both bile and metabolism of tissues as well as the bodily heat which is product of the latter. It is also viewed by some that Pitta is the name for the heat incarcerated in the liquid bile - the principal agent in digestion and in purging out of the waste matter in the form of urine and feces. The origin of bile is in the liver. In the heat, bile brings about the realisation of one’s desire; in the eyes the catching of the images of external objects; and in the skin, the absorption of the lubricating substances that are applied to the skin. It is blue in its normal colour and yellowish in its deranged condition; and it turns into an acid when deranged or vitiated. Pitta (heat) in its normal state remains in the lymph, chyle, blood and saliva but chiefly in the stomach. It gives sight to the eyes, beauty to the skin and cheerfulness to the mind. Its derangement causes sleeplessness, indigestion, red boils, jaundice, chlorosis, ulcers, catarrh, dropsy, haemorrhage, acidity, eructation, delirium, perspiration, thirst, bitter taste in the mouth, burning sensation in the body especially palms and soles, etc.

Khapa (phlegm) supplies the body with moisture even as Pitta furnishes it with heat and imparts stability and weight to the body. It adds to the strength of the body, increases the firmness of the limbs and keeps them united, preventing their disunion. It helps digestion by moistening and disintegrating food with its humid essence. It imparts to the tongue the power of taste and helps the sense-organs like the eyes, ears and the nose in the performance of their respective functions. Its derangement causes excess of thirst, dull appetite, throwing out of phlegm in cough, goitre, Urticaria etc. Meals taken before digestion, day-sleep, taking sweats, molasses etc., generally aggravate Phlegm.

The existence of these three humours in the human system in due proportion is well indicated by plus without which no correct diagnosis of disease if possible to get oneself well acquainted with the inner working of a disease, inner vision, intuition and the spiritual sense are absolutely necessary as it cannot otherwise be easily judged from a material point of view. It is only spiritual knowledge endowed with inner vision that will enable a physician to diagnose a disease at sight and suggest forthwith remedies therefore. A Physician who is incapable of entering into spirit of his patient by the light of knowledge, intellectual faculties and imaginative penetration would be of no use for the diagnosing or treating of human diseases.

Humoural Pathology was in vogue at one time over a great part of the Globe. Even in Europe, it was believed in by all sects and theorists evidently about 400 B.C. Hippocrates, the father of the Greek medicine was the first who had a leaning towards it; but it was Plato who developed it and Galen who defended it very zealously. It was only at the commencement of the 18th century that a change had come in the then prevailing doctrine explaining the essential humoural nature of disease. Humoural Pathology which ascribed all disease primarily to a morbid condition of the fluids, had prevailed in all schools of Medicine up to the time of Hoffmann who argued that solids were more often the primary seat of diseases than even of the fluids. He thus revived the doctrine of solidism which gradually gained credit. The fall of the Galenic School paved the way for the growth of the Western Medicine of the present day. Humoural Pathology is still generally believed in and acted upon throughout Asia.

Some alchemical authors of the West held that the three invisible fluids which by their coagulation formed the physical body of man, were but symbolised sulphur, mercury, and salt - sulphur representing the aura and the ether; mercury, the fluids, and sale, the material and corporeal parts of the body. They believed that in each organ the three substances remained combined in certain proportions. They were also of opinion that the said substances which contained in all things, if held together in harmonious proportions constituted health; their disharmony, disease and disruption, death.

The Kabalistic school of the middle ages interpreted these three substances in a different way although they followed closely the above principle. The three substances were according to them the three forms in which the Universal Primordial Will was manifesting throughout Nature-sulphur representing the expansive power, the centrifugal force i.e., the soul or light in all things; ‘mercury’, the life or the principle which manifests itself as vitality; and ‘salt’ the principle of corporification or contractive and solidifying quality. The school also asserts that the physician should be thoroughly familiar with the substances by studying them in the light of nature and not through depending on his own imagination. It will be found that all the alchemical masters who have written on the magnum opus have so employed the said three symbolical expressions as to make them understood only by the adepts and not the profane.

Siddhars’ Science also tell us that a man generally takes 15 breaths a minute; and this makes 21,600

(15 X 60 X 24) breaths a day; and at this rate, he can live for a period of at least 120 years, taking into consideration the fundamental principle on which respiration is based viz., The force or energy lost in every exhalation operating to a length of space extending to *12 inches is regained or recouped by inhalation only to a partial extent; because the operation in this case extends only to 8 inches, thus losing every time the force or energy required for supplying the difference of 12-8 or 4 inches; and consequently as much force or energy that ought to enter the body i.e., lost in every rocess of inhalation taking place.

In eating or vomiting, the breath forced out extends to 18 inches; in walking, to 24 inches; in running, 42 inches; cohabiting, 50 inches; in sleeping, 60 inches and so on. It is for the purpose of saving such loss or losses caused by indulging in the action mentioned, that Yogis take up a silent posture and suppress their breath in such a way and to such an extent that they are able to live for any number of years as desired by them without disease or death, devoting their life all the time for the good of mankind. Such a kind of spiritual breathing is sure to develop spiritual powers of consciousness much sooner that the ordinary process of evolution. It is a fact well-known to the Hindus that Siddhars and Yogis remained in a state or trance known as suspended animation and continued to be so far a longer period of time without breathing. At first sight this may appear a physical impossibility; but it is now generally accepted by the Western physiologists who explain it saying that the skin may to some extent perform the function of the lungs just in the same way as a frog breathes without lungs, while its respiration is carried on sufficiently through the skin. Though naturally the capacity to perform the above said function is very small, yet it is capable of considerable increase as in cases of diseases of the lungs such as Asthma, wherein the needs of the body excite them to perform these functions or by special training as Yoga by practice.


The esoteric breath is spoken as Prana; because in ordinary breathing, we absorb a normal supply of Prana just enough to maintain our life keeping up the body in a healthy condition, and so it is found necessary for our readers to know something about this Prana. Prana is the Universal Principle of Energy which is absorbed and stored or assimilated and specialised in one’s system in the ordinary course. It is the essence of all force of energy useful for the proper functioning of the human body. It is taken in by the system along with the oxygen which is found in its purest state in the atmospheric air. It is also in the water that we drink, in the food that we take and in the sun-light, we bather in; and in fact it pervades all nature and as such is everywhere found in all things. It is in all forms of matter, it is in the air, but it is not the air. It is more subtle than ether, and so can penetrate where the air cannot reach. It is of the nature of the dynamic force of electricity and all the life depends on it for its sustenance. It is the vital magnetic force absorbed by every human being in various ways; but it can be made flow forcibly under proper and favourable physical conditions. Susceptible persons will feel it as an electric current; because it is the life-giving energy in all things.

Now, let us see what part is played by this prana in respiration; it is but the esoteric breath. Human breath is nothing but a physical manifestation of Prana. As oxygen is taken up by the circulatory system, so is Prana taken up by the nervous system and is spent as nerve-force in the act of thinking, desiring etc. Regulation of breath enables one in fact to absorb a greater supply of Prana to be stored up in the brain and the nerve-centres to be used whenever necessary.

The extraordinary powers attributed to advanced Siddhars is due largely to knowledge and intelligent use of this energy stored-up in Kundalini (Serpent power). It should be borne in mind that every function of the bodily organs is dependent on nerve-force which is supplied by Prana emanating from the Sun and circulating in space. Without this nerve-force, the heart cannot beat, the lungs cannot breath the blood cannot circulate and the various organs cannot perform their respective normal functions. This Prana not only supplies electric force to the nerves, but it also magnetises the iron in the system and produces the aura as a natural emanation. It is the first step in the development of Personal Magnetism which is easily acquired by the practice of Pranayama which is fully explained under Yoga and its Philosophy. This Personal Magnetism, the subtle force by which people are influenced and nations are controlled is due to the strength or Prana. History abounds instances of the successes of remarkable personages naturally endowed with this power. Great men in all ages, orators, patriots, statesmen and dictators-admired and worshipped by millions were naturally endowed with this gift and they were but Natural Magnetists. Napoleon was the very thunder-bolt or Europe as also Abraham Lincoln of America, Maramede Steel and Mira Beau (the lion of the French Revolution) were leaders among men. Great men of our own day like Gandhi on moral sphere, Mussolini, Hitler, etc. on the material sphere, owe their influence to this magnetism. A person who has practised absorbing and storing an increased supply of Prana in his system, often radiates vitality and strength which are felt by those coming in contact with him. This power though latent in every man, requires cultivation and development for practical purposes more than perhaps those physical and other ordinary functions.

The Science of Pulse

The Science of pulse forma a very important branch of the Indian system of Medicine; and hence an elaborate description of it has been attempted here. The origin and development of this science is a subject of very remote antiquity. It is not Vedic in origin; and no trace of it could be found in any of the authentic works of Ayurveda such as Charaka or Sushruta. It is a science peculiar to the Siddhars’ system, of Medicine; and as such it was translated in the Tantric literature in which alone a proper delineature of this subject is to be found. It is in the age of Tantric literature i.e., the period during which several innovations were introduced by the Aryans in Southern India, that a large body of Ayurvedic physicians came to know of it and its secret and used in to diagnose all kinds of diseases. Subsequently, it went over to Arabia, Persia, Greece and other places in Europe. Praxogoras of Leos was the first who gained distinction in the West by adopting this method of diagnosis and the last person was Galen.

This Subject is no doubt as interesting as it is intricate; and a careful study of Tamil Siddhars’ science is bound to enlighten the minds of the people, as to the excellence, accuracy and profundity of this science of pulse. It was only in Siddhars’ time that this science had reached perfection. There are innumerable works on this subject written by different authors in Tamil among the following may be mentioned viz., Agastiya, Tirumular, Siva Vakkiyar, Yugimuni, Terayar, Punnakisr, Sudamuni, Mechamuni, Pulippani, Sattamuni, Bogar, Vara Rishi, Ramadevar, Idaikkadar, Konganava etc. The medical treatises by these sages contain so many honestly recorded factors simple, short and perspicuous that they have been justly estimated as the most practically useful and valuable acquisitions to medical science.

In ancient times, there were no appliances like the modern stethoscope, sphygmograph, endoscope etc., for extending sensual perceptions into the interior of the body; nor were there apparatuses and contrivances for the test of urine, faeces, sputum (phlegm) etc., to enable the physicians to observe, record and compare the phenomena of health and disease to such a degree as to bring medicine neared and neared to perfection, to deserve the name of what is now called ‘science’, the physicians in those days had to depend almost entirely on pulse in the matter of diagnosing diseases; and in this, they were pre-eminently successful.

The word pulse means the beating of an artery felt with the tip of the finger or fingers at the wrist; its rate and character go to indicate a person’s condition of health. It is also understood as the beating, throbbing or the rythmical dilation of the arteries as the blood is propelled along them by the contraction of the heart in the living body. The term pulse in medical practice is usually applied to the beat or throb felt in the radial artery at the wrist, though it may be felt over the temporal, carotid, lunar, bracial, femoral and other arteries. The Science of Pulse is no doubt based on the theory of Tridosha ; and so it cannot be easily understood unless one thoroughly acquainted with the working of the three humours in the human system. There are innumerable arteries spread out from head to foot in the human body, and amongst them pulse is felt in twenty-four; and out of these, the one in the right hard and other in the right foot are considered consequential, reliable and important.

According to Tirumular’s work on pulse, the following constituent parts forming the fundamental principles in the human body seem to play an important role in variations of pulse on account of their interpenetrating nature.

The ten vital airs.
The three nerve-channels Idakala etc.
The six nerve-plexuses.
The three regions of the body named the Sun, Moon, and the Fire.
Pulse is sub-divided as follows according to the nature action and other characteristics, viz:-

Frequent Pulse - one which is faster in rate than normal
Goat - Leap Pulse - irregular and bounding pulse
Strong Pulse - one that is hard or wiry
Weak Pulse - a pulse with no strength
Cordy Pulse - a tense and firm pulse
Full Pulse - one with a copious volume of blood
Hard Pulse - one which is characterised by very high tension
Slow Pulse - one which is abnormally slow in rate
Dropped beat Pulse or Intermittent Pulse - one in which various beats are dropped
Undulating Pulse - a pulse giving the sensation of successive waves
Normal Pulse - pulse beating at a normal rate
Sharp Pulse - a pulse in which the artery is suddenly and markedly distended
Feeble Pulse - a pulse in which the force of the beat is very feeble
Formicant Pulse - a small, nearly imperceptible pulse
Wiry Pulse - a small tense pulse
Collapsing Pulse - a jerky pulse with a full expansion, followed by a sudden collapse
Unequal Pulse - a pulse in which some of the beats are strong and others weak
Decurtate or Mouse-tail Pulse - a pulse which gradually tapers away in strength
Abrupt or quick Pulse - a pulse which strike the finger rapidly
It is so difficult and incomprehensible that many are ignorant of it even to-day. The results is that none can be found attempting it in practice with perfect success. There is no royal road to the acquisition of the knowledge of pulse. There are no doubt certain rules and hints for the guidance of physicians; but a mere study of them will not enable any of them to acquire a practical knowledge of pulse. Success in the art depends on experience and practice and that much more on Spiritual knowledge.

It is done by pressing with the physician’s three fingers (index, middle, and ring) of his right hand, at a place two fingers in length just below the root of the thumb i.e., a little above the wrist. The physician should feel the pulse three times by holding and letting loose the hand of the patient and then diagnose the disease with great care and caution.

According to the most commonly accepted view, the natural order in which is the forces of the three humours are indicated and are to be observed is 1) the pulses showing wind (Vayu) in the first place above the wrist is felt underneath the fore-finger 2) that of bile (Pitta), below the middle finger and 3) that Phlegm (Kapha), the third, under the ring-finger, c.f.

The three kinds of Doshas (humours) are ascertained from the three kinds of movements of the pulse-swift, middle and slow, felt by the pressure of touch of the three fingers on the radial artery. Examination of the pulse furnishes the best criterion of the phenomena and progress of a disease. It also helps a physician to force-tell the attack of a disease with its prognosis long before it has taken possession of the patient’s system just in the same way as a chiromancer would do with regard to events before they actually come to pass by examining the streaks of the palm.

The radial artery at the wrist which is usually chosen, shows the precise character of the pulse. In feeling the pulse, the physician has to note its impressibility, frequency, regularity, size and the different impressions it produces through the fingers. The pulse no doubt signifies whether a particular disease is due to Vayu (air), or Pitta (heat) or Kapha (water) or whether it is due to the influence of any two combined or whether it is due to the concerted action of all the three; and whether the disease is curable or incurable.

The physician as pointed out already, must be endowed with a spiritual perception without which it is impossible for him to arrive at a correct diagnosis of the exact nature of the inner working of complicated and obstinate diseases by simply feeling the pulse in accordance with the rules and principles of the science. It is his observation, thoughtfulness and imaginative penetration into the deep recesses of the patient’s organism that will enable him to form a true estimate of his patient’s condition. If he cannot penetrate into the spirit of the patient., no success can be achieved; and for real success, meditation and concentration are necessary. The nature and condition of the pulse in different diseases are fully described in the Siddhars’ science, the extraordinary pulse-rates that go to indicate incurable or chronic diseases; approaching death, the prognosis diseases etc, are all well explained therein. The general explanation regarding the cause of pulse is that it is due to the dilatation of the arterial walls which travel in the form of a wave from the larger to smaller arteries and that the differences in the beating of pulse are due to those humours in the blood in circulation; but according to Siddhars’ science it is also due to something else which is explained already as arising from the motive powers of the three vital currents.

The Nature of Pulse:- The Physician should carefully study the nature of the beating which he feels under his fingers; as the beats are described in an intelligible manner in various ways according to the force, rate and movement by comparing them with the movements of those of animals like horses, snakes, frogs, etc, and birds like peacock, fowl etc. The idea of this comparison should be well-borne in mind at the time of feeling the patient’s pulse for purposes of corroboration.

Diseases and their cure

Disease, according to modern science is only a departure from a state of health and more frequently a kind of disturbance of the healthiness of the body to which any particular case of sickness is assigned. According to Siddhars’ Philosophy, diseases in man do not originate in himself, but from the influences which act upon him. As already stated, man is compared to the world because the elements that exist in the world exist in man as well; and therefore any change in the elementary condition of the external world has its corresponding change in the human organism. There is the feeling of oneness between the external and the internal world of man; and it is upon this oneness that the doctrine of Humoural Pathology i.e., the theory of Tridosha is based. This may occur through different causes viz:

I. Derangement of the three humours.

Air, bile and phlegm are considered the three supports of the human system because they are the three fundamental principles in the composition of the human body. When the harmony of the said humours get deranged owing to a relative increase or decrease of one or more of the principal humours, disease or death will be the result which would be well-indicated by the pulse.

II. Astral Influences.

All the influences that come from the Sun, the planets and the starts act on human beings. If evil elements exist in the sphere of one’s soul, they attract, such astral influences as will develop diseases. Astral influences do not act directly upon the physical bodies of men and animals, but upon their vital essences in which all the elements are contained; and this is what is called in Tamil as ‘Graha Dosha’, Children are more liable to such diseases than adults. Moon exercises a vary bad influence over diseases in general, especially during the period of New Moon; and it is for this reason that patients in our country ailing from serious illness are afraid of its virility during the approach of the New Moon or the full Moon; it may bring about at times, even lunacy, paralysis or other brain affections, stimulation of sexual passions, injurious dreams, dropsy, hysteria, etc. Mars causes women’s suffering from want of blood and nervous strength. A conjunction of the moon with other planets such as Venus, Mars, etc., may make Her influence still more injurious. These influences from the planes are fully dealt with under Astrology. Diseases may often occur without any assignable cause; and sometimes people get cured without the administration of any medicine. Such happenings are attributed to the planetery changes of whose action upon the human system. Therapeutic Science is unable to throw any light upon.

Poisonous substances.
Impure and injurious elements enter the human system in various ways such as through food, drink, inhalation or absorption by the skin of poisonous air or vapour and so on. There are impurities of various kinds of all about us; and

what may be healthy for one person may be injurious to another, according to the astral influences on the person concerned and to the hidden virtues and vices contained in things in general. Rheumatism, gout, dropsy, and many other diseases are often caused by the accumulation of poisonous elements.

X Psychological causes.
A disease state of the body is often the result of the diseased state of the mind. ("Men’s sana in corpore sano"). This class of diseases includes all evils are caused by passions, evil desires, disordered thoughts and morbid imaginations. Such physiological changes in the physical body, as for instance-shame causes a blush in the face and fear produces paleness; fear causes diarrhoea; anger or envy, jaundice, Violent emotions which produce hysteria, miscarriage, apoplexy, spasms, malformations of the fetus etc. also come under this class. All diseases in so far as they are not directly due to external mechanical causes, are to mental conditions. The majority of diseases are due to moral causes; and so the treatment in such cases ought to be of a moral kind, and should be instructional. In the application of such remedies, care should be taken to see that they correspond to those states of mind which we wish to induce in the patient.

Many are the diseases caused by the abuse of psychological powers resulting in boils or blisters all over the body, atrophy of organs, derangement of the mind, loss of vitality, inflammation or enlargement of the kidneys, and so on.

X Spiritual causes.
Morbid imaginations may create hunger and thirst, produce abnormal secretions and give rise to diseases. The power of the true Spiritual Will (Ens Spiritual) is known only to a few advanced Occult students. It is a power which may affect the whole body and product or cure all kinds of diseases. He who has a strong Will power will have strong Spiritual power. Evil influence exercised by one person may affect another not only when his body, because the forces created in the sphere of one’s mind may be projected by powerful suggestions into the mental sphere of another through the medium of an image of wax set up or used for the purpose of attracting the evil spell; and this is a common thing known in the practice of Sorcery, Witchcraft, Black-art, etc.

X Diseases originating from the soul.

This includes all diseases originating from the above mentioned five causes. All diseases are no doubt the effects of previously existing causes. Some originate from natural and others from spiritual causes. Spiritual causes are those that have not been created by Man during his present life, but what he had created during the formed existence; and this is what we call in the popular language chronic diseases or off-shoots of Karma. For such causes there is no remedy, but that of waiting patiently until the evil force is exhausted and the law of Karma has had its effect by due adjustment. Even if the just retribution for our sins could be evaded at one time, it could only be postponed; and the evil would return again with accumulated interest and increased force. If the patient’s time for redemption comes, then will he find an efficient physician through whom his soul will get the needed gentle relief.

Cure of diseases: Modern Science has only two kinds of cures viz. Medicinal and Surgical; but Indian Science, while accepting both the kinds, contemplate even other kinds of healing such as Pranic healing, Mental healing, Spiritual healing, Thought force healing, Suggestive healing, Metaphysical healing, Magnetic cure, Water cure, Colour cure, Insufflation etc. all physical.

The philosophy of thus curing diseases is quite different from what is really understood by the Westerners. All influences, terrestrial and astral converge upon man; and they are invisible just like heat, light and electricity; but how can a physician recognise the manner in which they act and still less prevent or cure diseases that are caused by such actions, if he is not acquainted with the influences exercised by forces in the astral plane.

Every metal and every plant possessed certain qualities that attract corresponding planetary influences; and unless one knows the influence of the stars and the conjunction to planets and the qualities of drugs selected for the purpose, then, one will not be in a position to know what remedy to give for attracting such influences as may act beneficially upon the patient. Our physicians pay no attention to the positions of the planets and so they seldom cure several aliments.

To cure diseases is an art which cannot be acquired by the mere reading of books but which must be learnt through experience. Neither Academies and Institutions, nor Colleges and Schools can turn out physicians for curing diseases but they can only grant diplomas or titles and turn out doctors which they are actually not. A theory which is thus not confirmed by practical work should be abandoned. Modern methods of treating and curing diseases are to a great extent looked upon and employed as if they were means by which man by his cleverness tries to cheat Nature out of Her dues and acts against laws of Nature with impunity. To many persons calling themselves doctors or physicians, these are merely systems for making money to fill their pockets with and gratifying their greed. Many hundreds of years ago, the Siddhars who were the greatest Philosophers and Scientists of their age, have spoken elaborately all about the qualifications of a true physician; explained how physician should conduct themselves towards their fellowmen and have also criticised their untoward behaviour towards their patients. It is therefore for the readers to judge, whether or not the same logic and principles find just the same application to-day because the physicians have entirely deserted the path indicated by Nature and built up an artificial system convenient to themselves. It is clearly stated in the Siddhars’ Science that a physician who has no faith and consequently has no spiritual power in him cannot be anything but failure, even though he might have graduated from all the Medical Colleges or Academies of the world and knew by heart the contents of all the medical books that have been printed and published up-to-date. The character of the physician may act more powerfully upon patients, that a strong belief, undoubted faith and deep love for the physician, conduce much toward their health even more perhaps than the medicine itself so much so that they would be able even to change the qualities of the body of the sick especially when the patient responses implicit confidence in the physician.

A powerful faith and Will are certainly bound to cure where doubt has failed. There should be entire harmony between the physician and his patient. Wonderful cures may be effected by changing internal causes from which the outward effects grow; and this can only be done by spiritual knowledge and power. Therefore a physician should have true knowledge, and not merely plenty of information gathered from books or other sources; while a patient on the other hand should have a certain amount of faith and vitality without which no cure can be effected.

What constitutes a good physician

Writers of antiquity have handed down to us the qualities which they considered requisite for constituting the good physician and the following is the extract of a translation from Agastiyar 500:-

"He must be a person of strict veracity and of the highest sobreity and decorum, having sexual intercources with no women except his own wife. He ought to be thoroughly skilled in all the commentaries on Medicine and be otherwise a man of good sense and benevolence; his heart must be charitable, his temper calm, and his constant study should be how to be useful and to do good to the public" "When a sick person expresses himself peevishly or hastily, good physician is not thereby to be provoked to impatience; he should be mild and courageous and should cherish a cheerful hope of being able to save his patient’s life; he should be frank, communicative, impartial and liberal; and yet ever rigid extracting an adherence to whatever regimen or rules he may think it necessary to enjoin upon the patient.

The physician who aspires for success in his profession is expected to treat the poor free of charge, to maintain human sympathy and to be charitably disposed towards the public and above all to be taintless spiritualist.

The Science of Tamil Medicine, unlike other systems, is a peculiarly complex system of sciences as it will be found that it is purely intended for adepts among men and not for the ordinary; and that is why they had included in the works of medicine Alchemy, Philosophy, Magic, Yoga, etc., with a view to elevate them in the long run to the level of spiritualists; and it is also the reason why this science expects every one who practises it to be far above the level of ordinary mankind. There are numerous works on Siddha Medicine containing in every one of them the peculiar distinctive qualities that are expected of physicians on whom rests the welfare of the entire mankind. The following is a summary of those characteristics that constitute a true physician:

The Physician ought to be an Alchemist or the son of an Alchemist. He should understand the Chemistry of Life; and must have every natural qualification for his Occupation. The pseudo-physician bases his art only on books; but the genuine physician depends for success on his knowledge and skill. He should exercise his art not for his own sake or benefit, but for the sake of his patients; and his power should rest not merely upon medicine but also on Spiritual Truth.
A physician should be a philosopher acquainted with the laws of external Nature. A knowledge of Nature is the foundation of the Science of Medicine; and it is taught by the four great departments of science viz., Alchemy, Physical Science, Philosophy and Astronomy.
He should be an Astronomer; and this means he should know the mental sphere wherein man lives, will all its stars and constellations; the influences of the seasons of heat and cold, of dryness and moisture, of light and darkness and so on, as also the organism of Man. A physician who knows nothing about Cosmology will know little about diseases. He should know what exists in Nature and upon earth, what lives in the five elements and how they act upon men.
He should be well versed in physical science, should know the action of medicines and learn by his own experience how to regulate the diet of the patient, the ordinary course of a disease and its premonitory symptoms.
A True Physician should be able to do his won thinking, and should not mechanically employ the thoughts of others. He should be the product of Nature and not of mere speculation or imagination.
A Physician who knows nothing else about his patient but what the latter has told him, knows very little indeed.
He should not depend too much on the accomplishments of the animal intellect in his brain; he should listen to the Divine Voice which emanates from his soul and learn to understand the same.
He should have a knowledge which cannot be acquired by reading books, being a gift of Divine Wisdom.
He should be wedded to his art as a man is to his wife and should love it with all his heart and soul for its own sake and not for the purpose of making money or realising his own ambition.
He must have the faculty of intuition, i.e., a knowledge of his own and not a knowledge borrowed or purchased from others.
He should try to relieve his patient from suffering, but on no account delay his treatment for extracting money.
He should not venture to treat a patient without arriving at a correct diagnosis, also he will be committing a great sin which will not only affect him but also visit his future generations.
Ancient Chemistry

Although Chemistry has come to be known as an exact science within a comparatively recent period, yet its origin dates back to the earliest times of philosophical study. The word ‘Chemistry’ is closely associated with that of Alchemy. In a book on "Chemistry is Modern Life", from the pen of the renowned Swedish Chemist named Svante Auguste, the author has done ample justice to the claims of India as the land in which the beginnings of Chemistry as a Science can first be traced in the history of human civilization.

In India, Chemistry had been know as a science auxiliary to Medicine which was practised openly after the beginning of the Chemistry era in the Buddhistic monasteries where the priests were found engaged in curing all sorts of diseases; and they believed not only in a specific compound but also in the utterance of a specific religious formula considered necessary for the physician’s healing power; and it is thus that chemistry took a religious impress.

Chemistry as defined now, means the science which relates to the peculiar properties of matter an of the elementary substances, the proportions in which the elements combine, the ways and means of their separation, the laws which govern and affect them and all the connected and allied phenomina; but the simpler definition is-it is the Anatomy of natural bodies by fire.

In the Siddha System, Chemistry had been found developed into a Science auxiliary to medicine and Alchemy. It was found useful in the preparation of medicines for curing all sorts of suffering, spiritual as well as corporeal and also in transmutation of baser metals into gold. The knowledge of plants and minerals was of a very high order. Siddhar's presentation of Chemistry is masterly so far as it has gone, but unfortunately it is fragmentary, If one really wants to gather knowledge and collect materials for research in the field of ancient chemistry, he can find all that he wants only in the works of Tamil Siddhars; and no such treatises on the subject could be found elsewhere dealing so exhaustively as found therein; and moreover the Siddhars were the greatest scientists both almost all the branches of science.

It is necessary here to allude to the address of Dr. P. C. Ray at the Madras Medical College on 02-12-1926 on Ancient Hindu Chemistry.

"In the economic interests of the country, it would be will to develop such a simple and cheap system as in the ancient past and find supplemental counter parts on Indian economic scale instead of on the western luxuriant scale. India cannot stand any longer expenditure on a large scale on buildings and costly apparatuses and the like; and so we must adopt ourselves to methods and measures having regard to the financial possibilities of the country."

Several were the minerals known to and made use of by the siddha physicians in their medicines; and a list of them will be found in this volume under the heading (natural substance). The siddha physicians were also well acquainted with the process of obtaining metals from their ores.

When at long intervals, by merely turning over the abstruse and moth eaten pages of some of the Siddha works, one is sure to be struck with awe and admiration to find therein mention of processes like calcination of metals, preparation of quint essences, extracts and essences from minerals and other natural bodies or substances preparations of mercury such as animated mercury, pills for flying in the air, calcinated powders such as red-oxide and Chunnam with the marvellous property of transmuting metals, preparation of caustic alkali from the ashes of plants and several other preparations of medicine with high potency and power, some of them even capable of rejuvenating the human system, Do not all these go to signify the fact that the knowledge of Siddhars in Chemistry taken together with that of Alchemy(infra) should have been for superior to and in advance of the so called scientific knowledge dominant at the present day? One who has made a special study of the Siddhars Science will naturally come to the conclusion that it is the fountain head of all knowledge and sciences.

We also find application in Medicine of so many chemical products of their times proving that they were of course the first to prepare valuable medicines by chemical or other extraordinary methods unknown to the present day. The process of preparing Seynir and distilling several kinds of acids were not unknown to them since the distilled products had been to them of much help in using as solvents. Unfortunately, the Siddhars Science Terminology is difficult and highly technical in character and what is even deplorable, they are not fully expressive.

There knowledge of poisons also was not in any way inferior; it had been very exhaustive and surpassing as seen from the description of the properties of poisons furnished below. According to their science, poisons are divided into two main classes, viz: Natural or Native and Artificial or Synthetic, each of which is further sub-divided into 32 kinds making up total of 64 kinds.

The following are a few of the several instances showing in detail the several classifications and preparations contemplated Siddhas works; and these will not convince the re readers of the high proficiency, unparalleled knowledge and uncommon development which the siddhars had attained in this branch of science from very ancient times and even at such a remote period as that when Europe was completely immersed in ignorance and barbarism.

Calx or Calcined Oxide, red-oxide, carbonate, etc., prepared from chemical salts, mercury, sulphur, arsenic zinc, vermilion, corrosive sublimate, sal-ammoniac, bichlorid of mercury, etc.

Cleansing process of metals like lead, copper iron, mercury, etc., and compounds like orpiment, sal-ammoniac, borax, vermilion, corrosive sublimate, sub-chloride of mercury, etc.

The Siddha System which was in vogue in Southern India long before the Aryan period, had fallen into disuse; and consequently a major portion of the Siddha works was either destroyed or last for want of sufficient encouragement. Laser generations could not take it up in right earnest without State aid, as at the time of East India Company, almost all the Indian Chemical Works and factories in various places were ordered to be closed down on the ground that the preparations were crude and dangerous, but really with a view t encourage and promote Western Medicine. Subsequently, the passing of the poisons Act gave the final death-below especially to the siddha system dealing entirely with medicines prepared with metals and metallic poisons and this gave rise t the practice of Ayurveda in South India. It is still more regrettable to note that nor research work was taken up in this direction even during the time of the Asiatic researches or even subsequently.

Countless Chinese priests came to India and studied Tamil Medicine of whom Bogar and Pullippani are to be remembered specially. Ramadevar also learnt the Siddha system of medicine and propagated it in several countries such as Arabia, Egypt and so on.

These chief articles of import in those days from China into India will go to show not only the commercial relations that existed between the two countries, but also the close similarly of and relationship between the two systems of medicines as is apparent from the use of their drugs in India in the preparations of Tamil Medicines, as a substitute for indigenous drugs. That chemical knowledge ought to have been transferred from India to the accidental countries is very plain from the fact that Siddhars like Bogar, Rama Devar alias Jacob and others, had visited Arabia, Turkey, China and other places spreading the knowledge as they went along; one this has already been touched upon before.


That Alchemy has applied to the imagination of Man from Centuries is evident from the prominent part it has played in the ancient science and form legends of the past. In India, unlike other countries, its origin, growth and development are interwoven with a phase of religious activity. It is regarded as a Divine and Sacred Science and Art enveloped in mystery and could only be approached with reference, faith and due piety.

Although no one seems to have ever witnessed any person effecting conversion of inferior metals into gold, still the idea which had taken a firm hold of the imagination of many would never leave them even now, on account of the man's innate avarice and desire to become rich. Many are the families that have been ruined on account of this mad thirst for making gold; and therefore, its has been thought necessary to deal with the subject somewhat elaborately so as to put all on the alert as to the false notions enshrouding the subject. It is a science by which things may be decomposed and recomposed, and their essential nature changed, raised higher or transmuted into one another.

According to Tamil Siddhar's Science, it is the grand touchstone of natural wisdom; and it is purely of a Spiritual Origin; and hence for one To be an Alchemist, he should necessarily be a Spiritualist. Therefore, the employment of strong will, benevolence, charity, and above all purity of mind are the essential qualification of an Alchemist. Like a born physician, he should be a born alchemist, taking birth at a particular constellation of stars, according t his former Karma. Which again only means what was left undone or left done imperfectly in the former birth is bound to be accomplished or completed perhaps in the present birth.

As it is an art not to be practised for material advantages, it is not intended for materialists who can never expect any fruitful result in their attempts. Siddhars have written most profoundly and with utmost critical accuracy, Yet obscurely; but they all describe the thing sought for indirectly. Some say they are forbidden to reveal the process;

while others have declared it plainly and intelligibly leaving out some little points which they have kept for themselves. The different parts of the magunam opus have to be found our by a comparison of the works of several authors -- one of them describes the materials, another, their preparations, a third, their calcinations, a fourth, the rules etc., for regulating heat and so on. This arrangement is one of the most serious obstacles in the way of understanding alchemical processes in addition to the many other difficulties that have been thrown in the way with the set purpose of concealing the art, aim and processes and thwarting the attempts of the uninitiated.

In the first place, the alchemists have deliberately made use of an elaborated system of signs for materials, astrological signs. Sun and Moon, and so on, to indicate the seven metals. In addition to these, there are signs for every important substance known to them and also for various pieces of apparatus employed by them in common use. A vocabulary of words was also made use of, each representing an alchemist's ideas quite different from its meaning in our ordinary speech as for instance the three salts fetus three months old; an unctuous substance covering the skin of the tetus; liquor amni; alchemy etc. Unless a student is inspired with a genuine and dauntless enthusiasm, this technology is bound to deter him from advancing further in the study of this art. Siddhars have thus, enshrouded their operations with symbolism; and have given their materials fantastic names so as to conceal their identity from those outside the mystic cult. Even the symbols are unfortunately not employed with a uniform signification. It is to the credit of the Siddhars that they never sold their secrets; but were always ready to communicate them gratuitously to a chosen few whom they deemed to be worthy recipient. But here also, it has to be observed that they never communicated the whole of an operation to anybody at any one time and at any one place; and the same caution was invariably observed throughout in their works even as it was the case with alchemical writers. Even adepts in that science held its secrets inviolate and did not associate with any but their trusted collegues. It is not even definitely known what methods they employed in the science and what raw materials they chiefly used -- whether of mineral, animal or vegetable origin.

The Siddhars were also aware of the several alchemical operations divided onto several processes such as -- clacination, sublimation, distillation, dissolution, fusion, separation, conjunction or combination. coagalation, cibation, fermentation, exaltation, i.e., the action or process of refining gold, fixation, i.e., the action or process of refining gold, fixation, i.e., bringing to the condition of being non-volatile, i.e., to the state of resisting the action of fire purification, incineration of metals, animation or vivification, fabrication, liquification, extraction and so on. Some modern scientists and pharmaceutical chemists boast of having discovered some of the above processes under different circumstance.

That they were very much interested in the mineral side of Alchemy is evidenced from the fact that medicines prepared from minerals and salts were often freely used in this art and that Mercury occupied the central place in Alchemy. 'Muppu' was chief believed in as a Universal Salt for calcining metals and other metallic compounds and as such compounded in all medicines. Even the caustic alkali preparation from Fuller's earth played an important role; and whenever this alkali acted too strongly, it was generally moderated by the addition of sour-gruel(acetic acid).

The Siddhars were also aware of the mystic process of killing a metal which means depriving a metal of its characteristic physical properties such as its colour, lustre etc; and a list of such agents are already given under 'chemistry' (supra). Mercury is said to be Siva's generative principle and its efficacy extolled when it has been subjected six times to the process of killing. Many are the volumes written by Siddhars; some of them original and genuine while others of later day production, probably written by their followers. Some people are inclined to think or are led t believe that the later generations took up the visionary and fantastical side of the older alchemy, compiled mystical trash into books and fathered them on Agastya, Konganava, Sattaimuni and other great alchemical writers. Even the style employed in those books, is a farrago of mystical metaphors, full of technical terms and code words without any clue whatever to their interpretation.

Having dealt so elaborately with this subject, it is now our purpose to know what it is that turns or transmutes baser metals into gold. it is well known that al substances spring from some primordial matter called by so many terms--the Muppu of Siddhars, the Protyl(of Sir William Crooke), Travisa (of Bernad) and the Primum ens (of Paracelus); and all these indicate the same.

All philosophers agree that, is the first matter is found, we may proceed without much difficulty Where is it to be found from is then the question? The answer is that it is found in ourselves. Than how to draw or attract the secret matter of the stone out of us? Not by any common and easy means, surely! The secret is -- our soul has the power to do it, when the body is free from any pollution and the heart void of malice and offence. The soul is them a free agent and has the power to act spiritually and magically upon any matter whatsoever, and, therefore, the first matter, i.e., the prima materia of the lapis philosophorum is in the soul and the extracting of it is to bring the dormant power of the pure living, breathing spirit and the Eternal soul into active functioning. Thus, it can be seen that Alchemy in one of its phases is really psycho - Chemistry.

Rejuvenation and Immortality

Having so for dealt with Yoga and themes allied to it, we now come to Rejuvenation popularity . This word literally means the power of securing the body from the effects of age. According to Siddhars Science Rejuvenation does not necessarily means restoring the Old to youth; for it may simply mean the maintenance of youth without reaching old age; and if youth is maintained perpetually, it becomes Immortality. So Rejuvenation is a means for prolonging life and forms a part of Immortality. Every one in this world would like to get himself rejuvenated and live for a long time with a purely selfish motive and materialistic purpose; but the art and medicine are intended only for practising Yogis and avowed celibates who have renounced the luxuries of life and leaned to live a life wholly dedicated to the service of humanity. They have therefore to live for a long time for the good of the world.

The advantages derived from this treatment for rejuvenation practised by one according to his age, come under the following principles, viz:-- If resorted to in the juvenile period, in youth or in the middle age, the individual will be found t maintain throughout his life same age he was in, when the started taking the medicine. But if the medicine is taken at the age of fifty, he will be found changed into a lad of sixteen years; if at the age of eighty, to one of 20 years without any further development of the body; and in cases persons above eighty, rejuvenation is impossible for the reason, that all the tissues and nerves will be found relaxed and deleted of their vital strength.

'Plants' elixir of life obtained from the vegetable kingdom known as 'Sanjivi' with their extraordinary virtues of restoring the dead to life and also plants known as Kalpa drugs, such as Black gooseberry.
etc., all under different classifications as are mentioned below:

1. Those that rejuvenate the system immediately upon being taken.

2. Those that invigorate the system but not prolonging life.

3. Those that only prolong life.

4. Those that render the body invulnerable.

5. Those that import alchemical virtues to the system and its emanations.

6. Those that remove the wrinkles on the outer layer of the skin.

7. Those that turn grey hair black.

8. Those that help one in sitting of Yoga for a very long time.

9. Those that aid one flying in the arial region.

10. Those that help one to see the Astral light.

The Kayakalpa method is primarily meant for the benefit of great safes and other savants who sacrifice their own interests for the uplift of humanity and for those who are ever spiritually inclined.

According to western conception, the magical means of preserving youth in the body is to prevent the body of man from growing old by carefully maintaining his primeval freshness of sentiments and thoughts. There is a proverb" Become children in heart and you will keep young in body". By changing the habits of the soul, we can assuredly change those of the body. Causes which contribute towards man becoming old are after all rancorous and bitter thoughts, unfavourable judgement of others, fury of wounded pride and of ill - satisfied passions and similar emotional irritations. A benevolent and mild philosophy alone would save one from all these and other kindered evils.

Rejuvenation for the purpose of immortalisation is therefore nothing but a conservation of vital energy which is considered by Siddhars to be a very delicate problem not to be discussed in public. It is therefore a purely private matter requiring long and steady training. Siddhars knew very well how sex - energy can be conserved and utilised for the development of he body and the mind of the individual, without allowing it to be dissipated in unnatural excesses as it is generally done by so many uninformed people. In order to be successful herein, It is necessary that one should lead a celebate's life(complete continence or long abstention from sexual intercourse). It may be asked here whether this will not affect the constitution since it becomes an attempt hostile t Nature. A Yogi or any person given to spiritualism cannot at all be affected by such restraint from sex-passion.

Immortality being one of the most consoling and comforting dogmas of religion, should be reserved for the aspirations of Man's faith: and can never therefore be proved by facts acceptable to the cold criticism of science. It can nevertheless be proved by incontestable facts contemplated by Siddhars: but the present day scientists. Matters which present day science cannot at present ascertain with convincing satisfaction can only be reasoned through hypothesis. Humanity is ordinarily bound to know nothing of the Superhuman, which is beyond its average scope, Immortality in the flesh is a possibility: and a physical body can be kept on as long as the spirit desires its use; and a physical body can be kept on as long as the spirit desired its use; and it is only then that this body instead of decreasing in strength and vigour as years go on, comes to maintain perpetual youth according to the Siddhars system. We have every reason and foundation of fact to believe in the theories put forth by siddhars in their valuable treatises. Immortals according to them are beings credited with powers distinct from and greater than those of 'mortals', and they gain these supernatural powers through taking to Kalpam.

When rank materialism is growing ore and more rampant as at present, there has been evidenced more than ever on earnest demand for a longer and more perfect physical life; and more human minds are now actuated by the actively curious desire to know in full the possibilities of life. They have come to appreciate more than ever then ever advantages and benefits of living in the physical. It should here be borne in mind that man will realise these results only through the exercise of a gradual series of spiritual processes operating on and refining the material body; and these results could be achieved only through the exercise of a gradual series of spirituals processes operating on and refining the material body; and there results could be achieved only through following Siddhars teachings on Rejuvenation.

All diseases(lack of physical ease) manifested during the process of rejuvenation emanate from spiritual causes; and the aim of all of which is the reconstruction of the physical body, first through receiving new elements, and the next in the casting off of old ones. At the back however of all these processes of physical reconstruction, there is bound to be going on the far more important process of reconstruction of the spirit by which the body is being built. These processes are continuously going on within the body operating thought the skin the stomach and the other organs . All kinds of sickness are at best an effort of the spirit roused to increased activity by the fresh influx of forces arising from rejuvenation. only to cast off all old and relatively dead matter. But as this secret of the Siddhars has not been recognised by the human race, this spiritual process or effort with its accompanying pain and discomfort indicated by siddhars, has been held in fear and shunned as signals for or the approach of death.

So, with no knowledge of the spiritual Low and judging everything from the materialistic standpoint, the processes described by Siddhars for Rejuvenation are surely bound to lead men to doubt their efficacy; but only after a course of spiritual advancement they will come to receive so much of this influx of now life so as to be obliged to work for further possibilities of existence as also to know how to realise them. As human minds come to trust the supreme power in however small an extent and appreciate the absolute necessities, then the higher power is surely bound to prevail. Although one has to face ordeals at every step on the course of treatment by elixir or Kalpam, one will surely find his body better and stronger after each successive stage of the struggle; and these struggles also will gradually become less and less sever until they eventually cease and disappear altogether.

Medicines and material remedies may also greatly help one in this process of throwing - off useless matter, if used according to the instructions issued in Siddhars works, and they will be found to be of great assistance in the attempt, provided one has the mind and faith to do it. This has already been touched upon under 'Rejuvenation'.

It is believe according to siddhars science that preparations from mercury alone can invest the body with immortality and immunity from decay; and thus enable one to conquer disease and death. Mercury is the supreme medicament; and its study is regarded as highly useful and profitable Science.

'Muppu' mentioned in Siddhars science and other preparations categorised under Universal Medicine will also help one to conquer death. It may be asked here and pertinently too whether all siddhars who are believed to have had the full benefit of such treatments for rejuvenation are still alive. It is believed with dependable reasons that they do live but no one invisible for the reason that they can dematerialise and rematerialise their bodies as nothing is too high or impossible of achievement for them. We have even heard of many instances of saints and sadhus entering locked up and well-guarded or closed doors and issuing out of prisons thereby astonishing stuefied sentries who in their numbness recollect having beheld them as though in a dream, and that too only after they had passed! in fact they may be regarded as the real guardians of the world.

Siddhars consider that death is not at all a necessary part of or event in human life; and that there is no low of Nature that calls for death as a necessary happening. Man dies as a result of his own traditional ignorance, fear, imitation and erroneous auto-suggestion. Sidddhars through their spiritual power, rearrange the molecules in their bodies in such a fashion that they get no sickness at any time; and what we call death does not occur to them at all. They claim that a body can made immortal and that it is also possible for them to make fresh bodies here, by simply re-arranging and thus changing the molecules as often as it is necessary without casting off the existing body.

According to western ideas, death ordinarily never occurs suddenly; but it is brought about only by degrees, the sufferer either knowing or not knowing of it. Death is neither the end of life nor the beginning of immortality but it is a continuation and transformation in matter always repeated, according to the conception of the Indus. Death in fact cab be more be an absolute end than birth be a real beginning of human life. What we call death is but a rebirth into a new life. The human body is no more than a garment of the soul to which the former is coupled or linked by sensibility; and when this sensibility ceases to function, may be taken as a sure sigh that the soul is departing from the body. It is only when the garment is completely worn out or seriously and irrepairably injured, that the Soul quits it at once and for all. This is exactly what happens in all cases of natural death. To revive a dead person, the most powerful chains of attraction that have quitted the form (body) should be promptly and energetically brought together forthwith to draw the soul back to his body. If the operator can only inspire the soul of the defunct with the potentiality if his medicine or high magnetic powers, it will certainly return to the body through the persuasion of the thaumeturge.

So long as the blood in the body is not tendered absolutely cold and so long as the nerves can be galvanised, no man could be said to be wholly dead; and if all the essential organs of life remain undestroyed, the spirit may be recalled either through the effects of a powerful medicine or those of powerful Will.

While every minute atom of India's vast cultural store of human knowledge had thus been capitalised by the western nations who invaded and drained this Country of all her intellectual wealth, this ancient land continued to be the victim of a deliberately organised and intensely purposeful literary as it were. Nevertheless, India still lives head erect and bids fair to life on for ever as the illustrious procreator and glorious possessor of all the basic elements and factors contributing to the resultant basic strength lies in the fact of its being absolutely based upon a deep spiritual insight, knowledge and strength. Western medical science with all its allied sciences despite all its booming illusory success, has been amply evidenced to be after all a failure without the natural basic spiritual founding.

Source - From the book: INTRODUCTION TO SIDDHA MEDICINE by T.V.Sambasivam Pillai
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