Siddha medicine and its usage in mental illness

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The main objective of study is to find the abnormal behavior and its remedies in the view of Siddha medicine. As one of the oldest system of Indian, the Siddha medicine has several branches. The abnormal behaviors

described in the name of Kirukai Vaithyam. The primary data have been collected from Siddha Physicians through a questionnaire and personal interview. The secondary data have been collected from Siddha medicinal literatures. Type of research is descriptive and type of approach is quantitative.

Tamil traditional medicinal Siddha medicine is one of the oldest system of medicines. Plants, animals, metals and some chemicals are used to prepare the siddha medicines. Various forms of medicines are using for the therapeutic purpose. Kiyalam, Chooranangal, Pachaivettu, Tablets, Thailam, Kirutham, Nei, Ural, Melugu, Kalimbu, Lekiyam, Parpam, Chenthuram, Chunnam, Kattukal, Rasayanam, Thiri, Cheyaneer, Moorappaham, Karpam, Manapaakku, Vattal and Thuvaiyal are some of the examples for the various forms of medicines. Siddha medicines defined physical diseases as ‘Pinni’ as well as psychological diseases as ‘Noi’. The ‘Kirukai Nol 64′ of Agasthiar is the noteworthy book of Siddha medicine. Kirukai Nool describes about 18 psychiatric diseases. The siddhars totally denies the demonology and accepts the abnormal behaviors of the human beings as the modern psychologists.
The main objective of the study is to find the abnormal behavior and its remedies in the view of siddha medicine. The specific objectives of the study are as follows:

1. To find the classifications of abnormal behavior in the view of Tamil traditional siddha medicine.
2. To find the reasons for the abnormal behavior according to siddhars.
3. To find the remedies recommended by the siddhars.


According to Kirusa Nithanam 50 the symptoms for the psychological disorders as follows: standing with upper limbs, restlessness, singing meaninglessly, dancing, laughing, changing postures, sleeplessness, embracing others, loose talking, murmuring, spitting on others, wandering, sexual aggression, rolling on the floors, standing naked, removal of clothes.

Saint Agasthiyar describes about 18 disorders in the name of ‘Kirukai’ as follows:

1. Anal Kirukai
2. Pitha kirukai
3.Echi kirukai
4.Vatha kirukai
5.Chilerpana kirukai
6.Natha vinthu kirukai
7.Boothak kirukai
8.Chalak kirukai
9.Mohini kirukai
10.Kalleri kirukai
11.Kumbidu kirukai
12.Mananka kirukai
13.Alar kirukai
14.Maruttu kirukai
15.Moodu kirukai
16.Vali kirukai
17.Neer kirukai
18.Mayana kirukai
Moreover, Siddhars also described several sexual disorders like male impotency, female frigidity and sexual dysfunction. Siddhars describes the evils of Alcoholism and drug abuse.

The Agasthiar in his book Kirukai Nool 64 completely denies the demonology

Siddhars believed that the root cause of the abnormal behaviors are evil desire, disordered thoughts, passions, morbid imaginations, excessive fear, envy, anger, and immoral activities. ‘The Karma’ or off-shoots or chronic disease are mainly caused by the Man’s previous actions. The Law of Karma’ describes that a man’s sin actions. Sin actions of man are the root cause of the present life. Present life is guided by our karma. Siddhars believed that the mental abnormalities are caused by the evil karmas of the man or his/her ancestor’s karma. Another important reason is ‘;Thrithosam’. If the Pitham increased, the mental abnormalities occurred. Siddhars also believed that the abnormalities may occurred due to sleeplessness and breaking of Varma points, for example, due to the damages of Uchikala Varmam, Suliyadivarmam and Thudi Narambu ( Lada Soothiram 1200) traumatic disorders may occur.

Siddhars recommended several medicines for mental abnormalities. They prescribed Aviztham (Medicines) as well as Manthiram (Psychotherapy). Some of the medicines have been listed here:

1) Thuvalai – Anointing-external application:
Paruthi leaves ( Cossipium Herbaceum)
Karunochi leaves
Sirusundai leaves (Solanum Torvum
Kattu mullai flowers

Take equal proportion and mixed with honey and Sarvangam (incense powder). Then, give Thuvalai – annointing- external application.

2) Vedhu (Steam bath):
Meni leaves (Acalypha Indica)
Kilukiluppai leaves
Thumbai leaves (Leucas aspera)
Take equal proportion. Make smoke with coconut shell in fireplace.

3) Ullukku koduthal (Oral route):
Meni leaves (Acalypha Indica)
Kilukiluppai leaves
Thumbai leaves (Leucas aspera)
Thippilli (Piper Longum)

Take each equal to a coin-weight (12gram). Make all the leaves into powder. Give this orally mixing this powder with water.

4) Nasium – Nasal application
Karunochi leaves
Thumbai leaves ( Leucas aspera)
Garlic (Allium Sativum Linn)

Take each equal to a coin-weight (12 gram). Grind all with Sesame oil. Give Nasal application in the right nasal path.

5) Kallikam – Ocular application
Vasambu (Acorus Calamus Linn)
Sandal (Santalum Album Linn)
Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.)
Mahilam Flower virai (Mimosops Elengi)
Garlic (Allium Sativum Linn)
Turmeric (Curcuma Longa)

Take each equal toa coin -weight (12 gram). Grind all with cow milk and make it like a pepper size balls ( Kullikai). Then, dry all balls in sunlight. Dissolve a kulikai in mother-milk and give ocular application. Take bath using plenty of water.

Common medicine for 18 Kirukai:
Vediyuppu (Potasium Nitrate)
Rasam (Mercury)
Navacharam (Ammonium Chloride)
Seenthil thandu (Cocculus Cordifolius)
Adathodai root (Adathoda Vasica)
Mandai Odu (Human Skull)

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